Glossary Categories

Explore our Comprehensive Glossary Categories Providing you with Valuable Knowledge

Each definition contains 3rd party links for articles, videos and other useful sources to help you learn even more. *The more you understand the more knowledgeable you become to help better manage your personal health.*


Autism Glossary


  • Autism

    Autism qualifies in most states & in Canada as a condition for legally purchasing Medical Cannabis. Autism (ASD) now occurs in 1/48 children and continues to grow.

    A behavioral condition, Autism affects each person differently than the next. Early diagnosis is key to helping treat the many symptoms associated with ASD. Children and adults with Autism also experience additional comorbid (concurrent) chronic medical and other behavioral issues such as GI problems, sleep issues, asthma, diabetes, obesity, epilepsy, etc.

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (Autism) is a complex neurobiological condition that can also affect the normal function of the gastrointestinal, immune, hepatic, endocrine and nervous systems. It impacts normal brain development leaving most individuals with communication problems, difficulty with typical social interactions and a tendency to repeat specific patterns of behaviour. The term “spectrum” reflects the wide variation in challenges and strengths possessed by each person with autism.

    Scientists are still searching for the reasons why Autism occurs......

    Navigator Genomics is pleased to offer our Autism Test in which we report on the TOP 20 Behavioral prescription drugs used to treat the sypmtoms of ASD + a grand total of 416 medications used to treat Autism's many comorbid conditions. 

    When you order the Autism Test on Navigator (click on: "Get Your Test") you will automatically receive the "Navigator Medical Cannabis Test" to help select the Cannabinoids that genetically can work best for you.

     *Please visit our in depth 5-category Glossaries for Autism made available to you by our OnlyYOU® Autism.com genomics business by clicking on the Learn More button.

     

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    Autism
 

Cannabinoids


  • Cannabinoids

    There are 9 major Cannabinoids that are well stuided and known to provide Medical Benefits. Navigator Genomics has listed these here to help you and your dispensary and healthcare professionals utilize specific cannabinoids for specific medical condtions.... your chronic medicl or behavioral conditions are the basis of why you may use MMJ. The vast majority of cannabis' 100+ individual cannabinoids have not yet had enough evidenced-based conclusive research for scientific verifications. Research has demonstrated many of the therapeutic properties of the cannabinoids shown below as beneficial for certain uses addressing various ailments, symptoms and conditions. Navigator Genomics will add more Cannabinoids when more evidenced-based peer-reviewed and published scientific proof becomes available. For your knowledge, we also include two important enzymes: CB1 and FAAH; briefly described below. Please use the LEARN MORE buttons to link to more 3rd party in-depth information, videos, etc.

     

    Cannabinoids
  • CB1 Receptor

    CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 A G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located primarily in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is activated by the endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), by plant cannabinoids, such as the compound THC, an ingredient of cannabis; and by synthetic analogues of THC. Watch the YouTube movie to learn more about CB1.

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    CB1 Receptor
  • CBC

    CBC Cannabichromene - CBC doesn’t get a lot of praise nor attention, but it has shown to have profound benefits. While similar to CBD and THC, CBC stems from the all-important CBDA. Over time, or quickly if exposed to heat, CBCA will lose a molecule of CO2; at this point it is considered CBC. The same process applies when decarboxylating THC and CBD.

    CBC Medical properties:

    • Analgesic: promotes analgesic effects (i.e., pain relief) of THC.
    • Antibacterial: kills or slows growth of bacteria;
    • Antiproliferative: may inhibit tumor/cancer cell growth;
    • Bone stimulant: promotes bone growth.
    • Sedative: calming effect.

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    CBC
  • CBD

    CBD Cannabidiol CBD has been constantly researched and studied and provides many medicinal benefits. The main non-intoxicating phytocannabinoids are CBD and its acidic precursor CBDA. These are also the most abundant phytocannabinoids in hemp. CBD may possess the unique ability to counteract the intoxicating and adverse effects of cannabis, such as anxiety, tachycardia, hunger, and sedation.

    CBD Medical properties:

    • Reduces the unwanted side effects of THC.
    • Analgesic: relieves pain;
    • Anti-inflammatory: reduces inflammation;
    • Appetite stimulant;
    • Antiemetic: reduces vomiting and nausea;
    • Anti-prokinetic: reduces contractions in small intestine;
    • Anxiolytic: relieves anxiety;
    • Antipsychotic: tranquilizes, helps manage psychosis;
    • Antiepileptic: reduces seizures and convulsions;
    • Antispasmodic: suppresses muscle spasms;
    • Immunosuppressive: reduces immune system efficacy;
    • Antidiabetic: reduces blood sugar levels; Neuroprotective: prevents neural degeneration;
    • Antisporiatic: treats psoriasis;
    • Anti-ischemic: reduces risk of artery blockage;
    • Antibacterial: kills or slows growth of bacteria;
    • Antiproliferative: inhibits tumor/cancer cell growth;
    • Bone stimulant: promotes bone growth.

    See much more inforamtion on Cannabidiol (CBD) by clicking on the Learn More button.

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    CBD
  • CBDA

    CBDA Cannabidiolic Acid – CBDA or CBD-Acid is the main form in which CBD exists in the cannabis plant, along with THCA-A (THC-acid). CBD is obtained through non-enzymatic decarboxylation from the acidic form of the cannabinoid, which occurs when the compounds are heated and transforms CBDA into CBD; thereby, increasing the total CBD level.

    CBDA Known Medical properties:

    • Appetite suppressant
    • Antiproliferative: may inhibit tumor/cancer cell growth

    Please watch the Video and review the information for CBDa contained in the link below to learn much more about Cannabidiolic Acid.

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    CBDA
  • CBG

    CBG Cannabigerol – Normally, CBG appears as a relatively low concentration intermediate in the plant, but recent breeding work has yielded cannabis chemo-types lacking in downstream enzymes that express 100% of their phytocannabinoid content as CBG. Note: These effects may become addictive when combined with THC. [CBGA is another cannabinoid found in tiny amounts in mature cannabis plants. CBGA converts to CBG with exposure to air and light.]

    CBG Known Medical properties:

    • Analgesic: relieves pain;
    • Anti-inflammatory: reduces inflammation;
    • Antibacterial: kills or slows growth of bacteria;
    • Antifungal: treats fungal infection;
    • Antiproliferative; may inhibit tumor/cancer cell growth;
    • Bone stimulant: promotes bone growth

    To learn more about Cannabigerol please click on the Learn More button

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    CBG
  • CBN

    CBN Cannabinol – CBN is a mildly psychotropic cannabinoid; it is produced when THC degrades due to too much heat and prolonged storage. CBN has potential as a component in topical applications for its properties related to inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation.

    CBN Known Medical Properties:

    • Analgesic: CBN relieves pain
    • Antispasmodic: CBN may help suppress muscle spasms
    • Anti-insomnia: CBN may aid sleep

    See more valuable information about Cannabiol by clicking on the Learn More button.

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    CBN
  • FAAH Enzyme

    FAAH (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase) – This critical enzyme that breaks down anandamide and other endocannabinoids. FAAH’s enzyme activity can influence the medical properties of cannabinoids and work together to affect mood, appetite, motivation, perception of pain and pleasure, and memory. Changes in FAAH enzyme activity have been scientifically linked to differences in the way people react to medical cannabis. FAAH possesses the ability to hydrolyze (“breaks down by water”) a range of fatty acid amides including Anandamide. This serves as a “messenger” molecule playing a role in pain, depression, appetite, memory and etc., and serves as the endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors.

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    FAAH Enzyme
  • Terpenes

    Terpenes – Emerging research and a large body of studies exist demonstrating terpenes’ many possible medical benefits. Terpenes are primarily responsible for cannabis’ aroma and tastes. The FDA has generally recognized terpenes as “safe.” Terpenes act on receptors and neurotransmitters. Much more specific research is needed for improved accuracy in describing and predicting how terpenes in cannabis can be used medicinally to help treat specific ailments. Terpenes are still not evidence-based pharmacogenetically; therefore, not included in our PGX test.

    Terpene’s Potential Medical properties:

    • Enhances norepinephrine activity (similar to tricyclic antidepressants like Elavil)
    • Increases dopamine activity
    • Augments GABA
    • Inhibits THC’s intoxicating effects, thus increasing THC’s therapeutic index
    • Terpenes have been shown to increase the potential of cannabis-based medicinal extracts to treat pain, inflammation, fungal and bacterial infections, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy and possibly cancer.

    Some of the main terpenes found in cannabis include:

    • Pinene- has a distinctly piney aroma, and is also found in pine needles, rosemary, basil, parsley, and dill. Pinene is said to promote alertness and memory retention
    • Myrcene- another well-known terpene which smells musky, earthy, and has been closely associated in aroma with cloves, with some citrusy notes. Mycrene is thought to enduce the well-known ‘couchlock’ effect, leaving the patient slightly numb and with a substantial body sensation
    • Limonene-as is suggested by its name, has a smell and taste of lemon or citrus, and may induce a euphoric feeling, elevated mood and stress relief.
    • Linalool Linalool has a lavender or floral aroma, and is Used in the treatment of anxiety
    • Caryophyllene-has aroma and smell reminiscent of peppercorns which some people describe as ‘woody.

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    Terpenes
  • THC

    THC (Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) – The most well-studied DEA scheduled substance, having 100+ published clinical studies of medical cannabis and related products which contain THC. THC is the most common phytocannabinoid found in cannabis varieties. THC is psychotropic meaning it can cause feelings of joy, ecstasy, happiness, etc.) A small amount of THC taken with other medical cannabinoids is desirable to help create the “Entourage Effect”. *(See “Entourage Effect” in our Cannabis Glossary category)

    THC Known Medical properties:

    • May shrink cancerous tumors
    • Anti-anxiety; anti-depressant; anti-tension relaxant
    • Bronchodilator
    • Neuroprotective antioxidant
    • Antipruritic agent in cholestatic jaundice
    • Has 20 times the anti-inflammatory power of aspirin, and twice that of hydrocortisone
    • Analgesic: relieves pain
    • Appetite stimulant: stimulates appetite
    • Antiemetic: reduces vomiting and nausea
    • Antispasmodic: suppresses muscle spasms

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    THC
  • THCA-A

    THCA-A (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) – The main constituent in raw cannabis; i.e., unheated (aka, decarboxylated) cannabis. THC-A is the urinary metabolite, (what you urinate) THCA-A, CBDA, CBGA and other acidic cannabinoids hold the most opportunities for cannabis’ anti-inflammatory effects. Basic research has conclusively shown that THCA-A can have immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antineoplastic (anti-cancer) and anti-spasmodic activity.

    THCA-A Known Medical Properties:

    • Anti-inflammatory: THC-A reduces inflammation;
    • Antiepileptic: THC-A reduces seizures and convulsions;
    • Antiproliferative: THC-A inhibits tumor/cancer cell growth

    Watch the YouTube video to learn much more about THCA-A

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    THCA-A
  • THCV

    THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) - Newly studied cannabinoid which evidences hold promise for Type-2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. THCV is most often encountered in low concentration in dried plant material.

    THCV Known Medical Properties:

    • Anorectic: suppresses appetite and decreases body fat and serum leptin concentrations with increased energy expenditure;
    • Antiepileptic: reduces seizures and convulsions;
    • Antidiabetic: reduces blood sugar levels;
    • Bone stimulant: promotes bone growth;
    • Anti-hyperalgesia: shows the ability to suppress hyperalgesia (sensitivity to painful stimuli), inflammation
    • Anticonvulsant properties

    See more information about THCV (tetrahydrocannabicvarin) by clicking on the Learn More buton

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    THCV
 

Cannabis and Medical Cannabis


  • Anandamide

    Anandamide is an endocannabinoid or endogenous ligand to the cannabinoid receptor. Think of this as our body’s “self-produced cannabis”, first discovered in 1992. Anamide is a neurotransmitter, C22H37NO2, found especially in the brain, that binds to the same receptors as cannabinoids and influences mood, appetite, motivation, perception of pain and pleasure, and memory. Anandamide is also found in small amounts in cocoa and chocolate.

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    Anandamide
  • Cannabinoid Deficiency

    Cannabinoid Deficiency-Researchers have found that many diseases, like multiple sclerosis and fibromyalgia, may be caused by a simple deficiency of endogenous (internally produced) cannabinoids (also called “endocannabinoids”).

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    Cannabinoid Deficiency
  • Cannabinoid Receptor

    Cannabinoid Receptors - There are at least two cannabinoid receptor types, CB1 receptors, and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are found in high concentrations within the brain and spinal cord. Several cells in the brain and other organs contain specific protein receptors that recognize THC and some other cannabinoids and trigger cell responses. Other cannabinoids do not bind to these cannabinoid receptors and exert their effects by other ways.

    The discovery of specific cannabinoid receptors prompted the search for naturally-occurring chemicals that interact with the receptors, the Endocannabinoids. (See defintion of Endocannabinoids in this glossary below.)

    CB2 receptors are expressed primarily by immune cells and tissues (leukocytes, spleen and tonsils) but are also found in the brain.

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    Cannabinoid Receptor
  • Cannabinoids

    Cannabinoids are the natural substances found in cannabis plants that have medicinal applications. They include all chemicals that bind to cannabinoid receptors. The endogenous ligands of the cannabinoid receptors are named “Endocannabinoids”. Over 100 cannabinoids have been identified. Our Navigator Genomics™ test results will show you for how you metabolize the primary cannabinoids. These particular cannabinoids are the key components which are known to provide medicinal benefits.

    *Please visit our Cannabinoids Category in our glossary for more in-depth knowledge about the primary Cannabinoids known to provide medical benefits.

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    Cannabinoids
  • Cannabis

    Cannabis (Marijuana or Cannibis sativa), is a drug derived from the family of plants that includes hemp. Cannabis can be smoked or eaten or utilized in extraction processses to manu=facture compounds used to create medcial cannabis products. Use of cannabis with THC components are used to produce a mild sense of euphoria. Although cannabis use is illegal in most parts of the world, the plant has been shown to have many potential applications for medical uses.

    Cannabis is the botanical name and Latin binomial of hemp. There are more than 500 different identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in cannabis. Only a part of these compounds exists in one plant. The most distinctive and specific class of compounds are the Cannabinoids (more than 100 known). *Note: Cannabis is classified by the USA’s Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as a Federal Schedule I drug.

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    Cannabis
  • Chemovar

    “Strain” is the most common misused word in the world of cannabis. The correct (non-marketing) agricultural word which should be used is “Chemovar”. A Chemovars (chemotype) are a chemically distinct entity in a plants, with differences in the composition of the secondary metabolites. Minor genetic and epigenetic changes may produce large changes in the chemical phenotype.

    Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names (Strains), with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Cannabinoids present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main components for medical cannabis.

    Also See: Cultivar; Strain

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    Chemovar
  • Cultivar

    Cultivar is sometimes used by cultivation experts in lieu of “strain” or “chemovar”. Cultivars most commonly refer to plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. Cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants governed by the ICNCP (International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants).

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    Cultivar
  • Delivery System

    Delivery System The second-most important consideration for cannabis consumption is the delivery method. First is the cannabis flower.

    The three basic delivery methods for cannabis consumption are inhalation, oral, and topical. Under these umbrella methods are various techniques that serve unique functions, each appropriate for different uses.

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    Delivery System
  • Dispensary

    Dispensary is a specially designated store where legal medical cannabis is sold.

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    Dispensary
  • Dronabinol (Marinol)

    Dronabinol (Marinol) is used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, usually only after other drugs have not been successful. Dronabinol is also used to treat loss of appetite and weight loss in patients with HIV infection. Oral capsules containing THC synthetically manufactured dronabinol are available under the name Marinol.

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    Dronabinol (Marinol)
  • Endocannabinoids

    Endocannabinoids- received their name from cannabis. “Endo” means within, and “Cannabinoid” refers to a compound with Cannabinoid Receptors.

    Endocannabinoids are the chemical messengers that help your body get critical functioning processes moving, and when to stop, thus helping maintain optimal balance in the body, also known as homeostasis. When the ECS (Endocannabinoid System) is disrupted, any one of these things can fall out of balance. Dysregulation of ECS is thought to contribute to a wide variety of medical conditions, including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, etc.

    Endocannabinoids are produced by the body in humans and animals for the purpose of critical functioning including: Sleep; Appetitie Control; Digestion; Supressing Hunger; Mood enhancement; Immune Functions; Memory; Pain; Body Temperature; and others

    There are two (2) types of Endocannabinoids: 2-archidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and Anandamide. These have been named the Endocannabinoids.

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    Endocannabinoids
  • Endogenous

    Endogenous medical term for anything that originates internally, inside your body. If your doctor says your condition or illness is ‘Endogenous’, they mean whatever is wrong with you went wrong inside your body, and wasn’t caused by anything you can catch, like a virus. The Endogenous Cannabinoids are called Endocannabinoids.

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    Endogenous
  • Entourage Effect / Ensemble Effect

    Entourage Effect-Phrase introduced in cannabinoid science in 1998 by Dr. Raphael Mechoulam, to represent endogenous cannabinoid molecular regulation route. Simply put THC and other Cannabinoids work together in harmony. A small amout of THC is necessary to activate and create the most beneficially desired medical results.
    “The Entourage Effect” magnifies the therapeutic benefits of cannabis plant’s compounds, so that the medicinal impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts.

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    Entourage Effect / Ensemble Effect
  • Epidiolex

    Epidiolex- the USA’s first drug derived from marijuana, a medication that treats two rare and devastating forms of epilepsy. This drug, GW Pharmaceuticals’ Epidiolex, is made of Cannabidiol, or CBD, a component of marijuana that does not give users a high. It is given as an oil, and in clinical trials, it was shown to reduce the number of seizures by about 40 percent in patients with Dravet or Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. Patients with Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes, which typically emerge in the first few years of life, can suffer from debilitating and recurrent seizures, sometimes dozens a day. One in five patients is estimated to die before they are 20 years old. There are six other drugs approved to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut, but none approved for Dravet syndrome. Although Epidiolex was only approved for the two specific conditions, analysts expect doctors to prescribe it off label for a variety of epileptic diseases. It comes from a proprietary strain of cannabis grown by GW that has been bred to have high levels of CBD and low levels of THC, the component that makes people high.

    NEW: *The US FDA approved Epidolex on June 25, 2018. Before it can be manufactured and distributed the DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency) must first reschedule CBD from a Class I (federally illegal) narcotic drug.

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    Epidiolex
  • FAAH (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase)

    FAAH -is important enzyme which possesses the ability to hydrolyze (“breaks down by water”) a range of fatty acid amides including Anandamide. This serves as a messenger molecule playing a role in pain, depression, appetite, memory and etc., and serves as the endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors.

    FAAH has is often referred to as the “feel-good gene” due to its ability to affect our mood and overall happiness. Changes in FAAH have been scientifically linked to alterations in the way people react to cannabis exposure. Specifically, people who have two copies of the C allele experience an increase in happiness after exposure and more severe withdrawal symptoms when they are abstinent, compared to people carrying either one or two copies of the A allele. It is believed that people with the C/C genotype may be at greater risk of becoming dependent on cannabis.

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    FAAH (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase)
  • Hashish

    Hashish Arabic name for cannabis resin or compressed resin glands, containing 5-20% or even more THC. Hashish (hash) is made from the compressed resin glands found on the cannabis plant are known as Trichomes (or ‘crystals’) and are responsible for the white sparkling coating that is often seen on good quality marijuana. Hashish is the most potent form of psychotropic cannabis due to these highly compressed resins. Hashish is consumed by smoking a small piece, typically in a pipe, bong, vaporizer or joint (mixed with tabacco or more cannabis), or via oral ingestion (after decarboxylation).

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    Hashish
  • Hemp

    Hemp-is also called “industrial hemp” — refers to the non-psychoactive (less than 1% THC) varieties of Cannabis sativa L. Both hemp and marijuana come from the same cannabis species, but are genetically distinct and are further distinguished by use, chemical makeup, and by cultivation methods. Hemp refers to the fiber of the cannabis plant, extracted from the stem and used to make rope, stout fabrics, fiberboard, and paper.

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    Hemp
  • Ligand

    Ligand binds to a specific receptor. The ligands of the cannabinoid receptor are called cannabinoids. The endogenous ligands of the cannabinoid receptor are called endocannabinoids.

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    Ligand
  • Marijuana

    Marijuana (or marihuana) is the oldest name for the dried leaves and flowers of cannabis varieties. The name has gradually changed to the word “Cannabis” as many more uses for this plant are increasing, especially for medical purposes. MMJ is the popular abbreviation used for Medical Cannabis.

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    Marijuana
  • Marinol

    Marinol® (Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Belgium) is a preparation of synthetic Dronabinol, dissolved in sesame oil, as capsules of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg dronabinol. Marinol is Used to treat severe nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, and to promote appetite for AIDS patients. (Marinol is approved by FDA for use in the the USA)

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    Marinol
  • Nabilone/Cesamet

    Nabilone/Cesamet (made by Meda Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and others) is a synthetic derivative of delta-9-THC with a slightly modified molecular structure, FDA-approved and available in some countries by prescription in an oral pill or capsule.

    In Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Mexico, Nabilone is marketed as Cesamet®.

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    Nabilone/Cesamet
  • Neurotransmitter

    Neurotransmitter Chemical substance released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.

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    Neurotransmitter
  • Receptor

    Receptors play a host of many vital roles in our bodies. In biochemistry, a protein molecule that receives and responds to a neurotransmitter, or other substance. Receptors are found in: nerve tissue, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, lymphatic tissue, and the spleen. In Cannabis, the CB1 and CB2 receptors play roles in our immune system and blood formation functions. Other processes they control include cognition, memory, anxiety, motor behavior, sensory, autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, inflammatory effects, control of the vomiting reflex, nausea, hunger, and appetite control.

    Receptors are also responsible for the pleasure we get from exercise, commonly known as the “runner’s high”, and are believed to be caused by Endorphins.

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    Receptor
  • Sativex

    Sativex® (manufactured by GW Pharmaceuticals, UK) is a cannabis-based pharmaceutical product containing delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) in a 1:1 ratio, delivered in an oromucosal (into the mouth) spray. Sativex has been approved in Canada as adjunctive treatment for neuropathic pain in adults with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and in cancer pain. Registration is pending in several European countries. Sativex is on track to be approved by the FDA for USA sales sometime in 2018.

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    Sativex
  • Strain

    “Strains” are used to identify different kinds of cannabis flower. It’s primarily a marketing/sales approach which attempts to use distinctively creative names to distinguish themselves. Strain names run into the 1,000s; with no naming or classication standardizations names are simply invented by the original grower and/or retailer.

    Cannabis is undergoing a rapid change to acceptance. The cannabinoid ratios and percentages are important. Many cannabis researchers and medical professionals are trying to develop a more uniform testing, naming and quality control identification systems.

    Sativa types of cannabis were originally grown in the Western world on an industrial scale for fiber, oil, and animal feedstuff. They are characterized by tall growth with few, widely spaced, branches and long, thin leaves. Plants of the Indica type originated in South Asia and were known historically as Indian hemp. They are characterized by shorter bushy plants and broader leaves, typically maturing relatively fast.

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    Strain
  • Terpene

    Terpenes - are found in all plants, are common constituents of flavorings and fragrances**. Terpenes are responsible for the aroma of Cannabis. The FDA has generally recognized Terpenes as “safe.” Terpenes act on receptors and neurotransmitters. Terpenes may act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (like antidepressants like Prozac), which enhance norepinephrine activity (similar to tricyclic antidepressants such as Elavil); they may increase dopamine activity; and they can augment GABA (the “downer” neurotransmitter that counters glutamate, which is the “upper”). Much more specific research is needed for improved accuracy in describing and predicting how terpenes in cannabis can be used medicinally to help treat specific ailments. Terpenes are still not evidence-based pharmacogenetically; therefore, not included in PGX test.

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    Terpene
  • THC

    THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol), is the chemical responsible for most of marijuana’s psychological and psychotropic effects such as Euphoria (“getting High”), slowing brain reactions & responses, and stimulating one’s appetite. Note: Some amount of THC must be present in medical cannabis to be a part of the “Entourage Effect”. In larger doses THC has been found to have medical benefits such as: shrinking tumors, reduction of pain and anxiety, PTSD, and many more conditions. THC’s medical benefits are still being heavily researched and refined.

    See: http://www.leafscience.com/2014/07/22/7-proven-medical-benefits-thc/

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    THC
 

General Medical Terms


  • Anabolism/Anabolic

    Anabolism/Anabolic Metabolic process in which complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism.

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    Anabolism/Anabolic
  • Catabolism/ Catabolic

    Catabolic reactions are a type of metabolic reaction that take place within a cell. Catabolism is the opposite of anabolism which involves the synthesis of large molecules from smaller molecules and is utilized with products that are rich in potential energy.

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    Catabolism/ Catabolic
  • Dosage

    Dosage is the recommended amount or frequency of a dose of a prescribed medication or drug including over the counter medicine or drug.

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    Dosage
  • Efficacy

    Efficacy-is used in pharmacology and medicine to describe both the maximum response achievable from a pharmaceutical drug and to the capacity for sufficient therapeutic effect or beneficial change in clinical treatment. In simple words, medications that work as intended have good “Efficacy”.

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    Efficacy
  • Inducer

    Inducer- is any drug that increases the metabolic activity of a medication either by binding to an enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the medication’s enzymes. Prescription drugs can induce each other and so can Medical Cannabis when taken simultaneously with other medications. Inducers are the opposite of an Inhibitor which can slow down or stop the threapuetic effects of other medications.

    Note: Your Navigator Test Results Report includes valauble information showing which medications are known Inducers and Inhibitors, matched to your personal paharmacogenomic responses.

    Watch the short Movie to learn more about Inducers

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    Inducer
  • Inhibitor

    Inhibitors interact with enzymes to prevent them from doing their jobs. Drug Inhibitors can lower or remove the drug efficacy of the medication itself(effectiveness) or another medication and may also create potential adverse reactions, etc.

    Drug-to Drug inhibitors amy happen when different medicartions are taken simultaneously.

    Think of a drug inhibitor as the drug’s way of saying “Slow down!” or “Stop!”

    Note: All Navigator Genomics™ Test Reports comprehensively lists the potential Drug Inhibitors and Inhibitors and are Personalized for you based on your pharmacogenomic PGx test results.

    Please watch the short YouTube nove to learn more about Inhibitors.

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    Inhibitor
  • Label Recommendation

    Label Recommendation All medicines are required to meet the labeling requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

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    Label Recommendation
  • Median Effective Dose

    Median Effective Dose The dose required to achieve 50% of the desired response in 50% of the population.

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    Median Effective Dose
  • Off-Label Drug Use (OLDU)

    Off-Label Drug Use (OLDU) involves prescribing currently available and marketed medications for an indication (i.e. a disease or a symptom) that has never received FDA approval.

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    Off-Label Drug Use (OLDU)
  • Patient Portal

    Patient Portal Your test results will be filed in our fully secured, encrypted HIPAA compliant “portal” on the OnlyYOU Genomics website. Accessible only to account holders with your username and a passcode for your individual account.

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    Patient Portal
  • Polypharmacy

    Polypharmacy- is The simultaneous taking of Multiple Rrugs to treat a single ailment or condition and the simultaneous use of multiple drugs by a single patient for one or more conditions. It is very common for people to become “Polypharmacy” when dealing with chronic medical condtions. As we age, over 70% of the US population is Polypharmacy due to increased health issuesand medical symptoms. The majority of people using Medcial Cannabis are often taking multiple Prescription Medications (Rx), most often taking several pain medications that are causing unwanted side effects.

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    Polypharmacy
  • Precision Medicine

    Precision Medicine “The emerging approach for disease prevention and treatment that takes into account people’s individual variations in genes, environment, and lifestyle”.(NIH definition) It is often interchangeably used with “personalized medicine”. Use the National Institutes of Health (NIH) link below to learn more.

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    Precision Medicine
  • Precision Medicine Initiative/ 'All of Us'

    Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative® (PMI) in his 2015 State of the Union address. Through advances in research, technology and policies that empower patients, the PMI will enable a new era of medicine in which researchers, providers and patients work together to develop individualized care. The President called for $215 million in fiscal year 2016 to support the Initiative, which includes several components with efforts from across the federal government. Of this total proposed budget, $130 million was allocated to NIH to build a national, large-scale research participant group, called a cohort, and $70 million was allocated to the National Cancer Institute to lead efforts in cancer genomics as part of PMI for Oncology. The Precision Medicine Initiative name changed in early 2017 to “All of Us”.

    Click ‘Learn More’ to learn how the U.S. Government is attempting to catch up with China, France and other countries who have realized the high priority for Precision Medicine.

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    Precision Medicine Initiative/ 'All of Us'
  • Rx

    Rx is the abbreviation for “Prescription Drug”.

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    Rx
  • Side Effect

    Side Effect About Rx Side Effects: whether therapeutic or adverse, which are secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse (negative) effects, it can also apply to beneficial, and unintended, consequences of the use of a drug. Occasionally, drugs are prescribed or procedures performed specifically for their side effects; in that case, said side effect ceases to be a side effect, and then becomes an intended effect.

    Medical Cannabis Side Effects: main side effects are: dysphoria, memory impairment, reduced concentration, disorientation, and motor incoordination. Phytocannabinoids differ in their psycho-activity; e.g., cannabinol (CBN) is approximately 90% less psycho-active than Δ9-THC, whereas cannabidiol(CBD) completely lacks psycho-activity. Medical Cannabis is othen used to counteract undesirable side effects that often occur with Prescription Medications.

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    Side Effect
  • Trial and Error

    Trial and Error is a fundamental method of problem solving commonly used in employing scientific methodology. It is characterized by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until successful outcome or until the person or provider stops trying.

    For medications, medical schools advocate trying drugs at the smallest doses first to see how they may work for you, then testing to view results, increasing doses as needed or determining and prescribing other types of medications that may work better.

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    Trial and Error
 

Pharmacogenomics


  • Adverse Reaction

    Adverse Reaction In pharmacology, any unexpected or dangerous reaction to a drug. An unwanted effect caused by the administration of a drug. The onset of the adverse reaction may be sudden or develop over time. Adverse reactions can lead to other illnesses, side effects, hospitalizations and even death.

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    Adverse Reaction
  • Allele

    Allele One of two or more forms of a single gene. Each person inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent.

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    Allele
  • Assay

    Assay The procedure for measuring the biochemical or immunological activity of a sample.

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    Assay
  • Base Pair

    Base Pair Two nucleotides on complementary DNA strands. Human DNA consists of about 3 billion base pairs, and more than 99% of those are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these base pairs determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism.

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    Base Pair
  • Chromosomes

    Chromosomes A single strand of tightly coiled DNA that reside in pairs within the nucleus. Humans have 22 autosomal chromosomes (named as 1 to 22) and two sex chromosomes, X and Y.

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    Chromosomes
  • Cytochrome P450

    Cytochromes(CYP Genes) are drug-metabolizing enzymes located in the liver and responsible for the metabolism of a large number of pharmaceutical medications. Expression of each CYP is influenced by a unique combination of mechanisms and factors including genetic polymorphisms, induction by xenobiotics, regulation by cytokines, hormones and etc. The major function for the Cytochromes (CYP Genes) leads to distinct pharmacogenetic phenotypes termed as Poor or Intermediate or Ultra-Rapid metabolizers.

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    Cytochrome P450
  • Deletion

    Deletion occurs when one or more nucleotide pairs are lost from a DNA molecule.

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    Deletion
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

    DNA contains the genetic instructions that program development and the mature structure and function of individuals. DNA consists of nucleotides that reside in sequence along a backbone of deoxyribose sugar and phosphates.

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    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  • Drug Inducer

    Drug Inducer- is any drug that increases the metabolic activity of a medication either by binding to an enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the medication’s enzymes. Prescription drugs may act as an Inducer when taken with other medications, including Medical Cannabis. Inducers are the opposite of an Inhibitor which can slow down or stop the therapuetic effects of other medications.

    **Note: All Navigator Genomics™ Test Results Report includes very valuable information showing which medications are known Inducers and Inhibitors based upon your personal pharmacogenomic (PGx) test responses.

    Watch the short YouTube Movie to learn more about Inducers

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    Drug Inducer
  • Drug Inhibitor

    Drug Inhibitors- Prescription medications can interact with each other to prevent them from doing their jobs. Drug Inhibitors can lower or remove the drug efficacy of the medication itself (effectiveness) or another medication, including Medical Cannabis and may also create potential adverse reactions, etc.

    Drug-to Drug inhibitors amy happen when different medications are taken simultaneously.

    Think of a drug inhibitor as the drug’s way of saying “Slow down!” or “Stop!”

    Note: All Navigator Genomics™ Test Reports comprehensively lists the potential Drug Inhibitors and Inhibitors and are Personalized for you based on your pharmacogenomic PGx test results.

    Please watch the short YouTube nove to learn more about Inhibitors.

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    Drug Inhibitor
  • Drug Interaction

    Drug Interaction-may occur when two medications or other substances are taken together affecting the normal expected drug activity. This action can be Synergistic (when the drug’s effect is increased) or Antagonistic (when the drug’s effect is decreased). In some situations, a new effect can be produced that neither substance produces on its own. Some drug-to drug interactions may also cause undesirable side effects.

    *IMPORTANT: Navigator Genomic testresults report on both MMJ Cannabinoids-to-Drug Interactions AND on your prescription Drug-Drug interactions, all based on your genetic responses and your gene variations! **This is extremely important to help you avoid loss of efficacy of both your MMJ and your prescription drugs, and to avoid unwanted side-effects!

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    Drug Interaction
  • Drug Metabolism

    Drug Metabolism The process by which the body breaks down and converts medication into active chemical substances. Most drug metabolism occurs in the liver, although some processes occur in the gut wall, lungs and blood plasma. Overall, metabolic processes will convert the drug into a more water-soluble compound by increasing its polarity.

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    Drug Metabolism
  • Drug Response

    Drug Response The reaction of the body to an administered drug is affected by many factors. Genetic makeup controls your drug metabolism, age, body size, the use of other drugs and dietary supplements (such as medicinal herbs, the consumption of food (including beverages), the presence of diseases (such as kidney or liver disease), and the development of tolerance and resistance.

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    Drug Response
  • DTC (Direct-to-Consumer)

    Direct-to-consumer OnlyYOU® Genomics sells pharmacogenomic tests exclusively to consumers to provide them with the lowest cost and easiest way to get their personalized report results.

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    DTC (Direct-to-Consumer)
  • Duplication

    Duplication is the presence of an extra segment of DNA, resulting in redundant copies of a portion of a gene, an entire gene, or a series of genes.

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    Duplication
  • Enzyme

    Enzyme A biological catalyst, usually a protein, which speeds up the rate of a specific chemical reaction. The body contains thousands of different enzyme molecules, each specific to a particular chemical reaction.

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    Enzyme
  • Enzyme Inhibitor

    Enzyme Inhibitor A molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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    Enzyme Inhibitor
  • Epigenetics

    Epigenetics The study of heritable changes that do not affect the DNA sequence but influence gene expression.

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    Epigenetics
  • Evidence-Based

    Evidence-Based Emphasizes the use of solid factual evidence from well-designed and published scientific medical research to optimize the decisions of the medical practice.

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    Evidence-Based
  • Exons

    Exons- these portions of DNA code for proteins and are the expressed portion of a gene. Exons contain the DNA sequences that are converted to mRNA, and by way of the genetic code, determine the amino acid sequence in proteins. Exons are part of DNA sequencing that are found in a gene, and exons code the information for protein synthesis.

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    Exons
  • Family History

    Family History The genetic relationships within a family combined with the medical history of individual family members. When represented in diagram form using standardized symbols and terminology, it is usually referred to as a pedigree, family tree, or family history.

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    Family History
  • Gene

    Gene The physical and functional unit of DNA that controls your metabolism and utilization of drugs. Genes contain the instructions that help determine how the body develops and how it functions. 93% of people have gene variations.

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    Gene
  • Genetic Counseling

    Genetic Counseling A communication process that seeks to assist affected or at-risk individuals and families in understanding the natural history, disease risks, and mode of transmission of a genetic disorder; to facilitate informed consent for genetic testing when appropriate; to discuss options for risk management and family planning; and to provide for or refer individuals for psychosocial support as needed.

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    Genetic Counseling
  • Genetic Counselor

    Genetic Counselor advises patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder including the options open to them in management and family planning. The counseling includes the consequences and nature of the inherited disorder and the probability of developing or transmitting the disorder.

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    Genetic Counselor
  • Genetic Testing

    Genetic testing is often used as a predictive pre-symptomatic test used to find gene changes that increase a person’s likelihood of developing diseases. The results of these tests provide you with information about your risk of developing a specific disease, identifies individuals who are at higher risk of having or developing a particular disorder, or carrying a gene for a particular medical disorder.

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    Genetic Testing
  • Genetics

    Genetics is the scientific study of genes and their roles or effects in inheritance - in other words, the way that certain traits or conditions are passed down from one generation to another. Genes (units of heredity) carry the instructions for making proteins, which direct the activities of cells and functions of the body, including your metabolism for drugs.

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    Genetics
  • Genome

    Genome The set of all genes that specify traits in an individual. A genome is an organism’s complete set of genetic instructions. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build that organism and allow it to grow and develop.

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    Genome
  • Genotype

    Genotype Broadly, an individual’s collection of genes. In pharmacogenetics, the genotype is a particular DNA composition within a gene of interest. Its expression contributes to the individual’s observable traits, called a phenotype.

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    Genotype
  • Genotypic Screening

    Genotypic Screening Testing that reveals the specific alleles inherited by an individual.

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    Genotypic Screening
  • Heterozygosity

    Heterozygosity When two different alleles are present on the chromosome pair.

    Watch the video by clicking on “Learn More”.

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    Heterozygosity
  • Homozygosity

    Homozygosity When two identical alleles are present on the chromosome pair.

    Click on “Learn More” to see a video.

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    Homozygosity
  • Informational

    Informational Not metabolically measurable, but important information about a certain medication. Use for learning about documented drug interactions, inhibitors, and potential adverse reactions and toxicities. In genomic testing, a test result that reveals definitively the presence or absence of a genetic alteration.

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    Informational
  • Interactions

    Interactions– most medications can be safely used with other medicines, but particular combinations of medicines need to be monitored for interactions. Medications can diminish or cancel the efficacy (effectiveness) of one or both mnedications when taken simultaneously.

    Drug-to-drug interactions between medications fall generally into one of two main categories:

    • “Pharmacodynamic” which involves the actions of the two interacting drugs, and/or
    • “Pharmacokinetic”, which involves the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of one or both of the interacting drugs upon the other. Note: All Navigator Genomics Tests report on your potential drug-to-drug interactions!

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    Interactions
  • Intron

    Intron- a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule that does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes. Introns are the opposite of Exons). Introns can influence DNA variants (alleles) which help determine your genetic responses to medications.

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    Intron
  • Locus

    Locus (plural loci) The physical site or location of a specific gene on a chromosome. Each chromosome carries many genes; humans estimated haploid protein coding genes are 19,000-20,000, on the 23 different chromosomes. A variant of the similar DNA sequence located at a given locus is called an “allele”.

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    Locus
  • Metabolic

    Metabolic- describes Medications that are metabolized in the liver, brain or specific areas of the body where specific genes are involved in metabolizing the drug for your use.

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    Metabolic
  • Metabolic Pathways

    Metabolic Pathways is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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    Metabolic Pathways
  • Metabolism

    Metabolism- the rate at which any medications are broken down, assimilated, and the components of these medical compounds are utilized by an individual. **Every individual has different rates of metabolism for each medication due to their personal gene variants.

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    Metabolism
  • Mode of Action (aka, mechanism of action)

    Mode of Action or Mechanism of Action (MOA) A specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect. A drug’s MOA may refer to its cell growth, interaction, or modulation of its direct biomolecular target such as a protein or nucleic acid. It usually includes the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor.

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    Mode of Action (aka, mechanism of action)
  • Mutation

    Mutation Any change in the nucleotide base sequence of a gene. Mutations are a key mechanism to evolution through their detrimental or advantageous effect on the fitness of the organism.

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    Mutation
  • Nucleotide

    Nucleotide Sub-unit of DNA consisting of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a deoxyribose sugar.

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    Nucleotide
  • Nutrigenomics

    Nutrigenomics The scientific study of the interaction of nutrition and genes, especially with regard to the prevention or treatment of disease.

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    Nutrigenomics
  • Personalized Medicine

    Personalized Medicine Tailoring of medical treatment to an individual’s personal characteristics, needs and preferences during all stages of care, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Another simplified version of personalized medicine is providing the right patient with the right drug at the right dose at the right time. “Precision Medicine” is sometimes used interchangeably with “Personalized Medicine”. Personalized Medicine generally involves the use of two medical products – typically, a diagnostic device and a therapeutic product – such as a drug to improve patient outcomes.

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    Personalized Medicine
  • Pharmacodynamics

    Pharmacodynamics The branch of pharmacology concerned with the effects of drugs and the mechanism of their action. The biochemical and physiological effects of drugs, particularly those that define the drugs mechanism of action on the body.

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    Pharmacodynamics
  • Pharmacogenetics (PGx)

    Pharmacogenetics(PGx) is the identification of genetic variations and their association with variations in drug treatment response. Derived from combination of the words “Pharma” (pharmaceutical) and “genetics” (your personal genes).

    Using life sciences and molecular technologies, pharmacogenomics measures your specific genes and the variants of your genes (alleles) to determine your individual metabolism for prescribed medications.

    Please click on “Learn More” button to view the Mayo Clinic video that will help educate you about PGx.

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    Pharmacogenetics (PGx)
  • Pharmacogenomic Test

    Pharmacogenomic Test An assay intended to study inter-individual variations in whole genome or candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism SNP maps, haplotype markers, or alterations in gene expression or inactivation that may be correlated with pharmacological function and therapeutic response. In some cases, the pattern or profile of change is the relevant biomarker, rather than changes in individual markers. Pharmacogenomic testing provides information about a patient’s likelihood to have an adverse response and/or a therapeutic response to a medication, enabling the potential for a tailored and personalized approach to medication therapy. Although the primary focus of pharmacogenomic testing has been on improving drug selection and dosing in patient populations or individuals, a secondary potential benefit of testing may be the improvement of medication adherence.

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    Pharmacogenomic Test
  • Pharmacogenomics

    Pharmacogenomics -incorporation of multiple pharmacogenetic results to develop multiple gene-based phenotypic results. Pharmacogenomics identify drug responses, such as drug metabolism, interactions, inhibitors, adverse reactions and side-effects for patients in clinical treatment. Pharmacogenomics testing reports on “many genes and variants” versus the results of testing one gene which is “Pharmacogentics”.

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    Pharmacogenomics
  • Pharmacokinetics

    Pharmacokinetics - the branch of pharmacology concerned with the movement of drugs within the body. These modes of actions may include: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME = absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) of prescription drugs (Rx’s).

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    Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacology

    Pharmacology Branch of medicine concerned with the study of medicines and drugs, including their origin, action, use, and their effects on the body, including therapeutic and toxic effect. The Doctor of Pharmacy degree (often abbreviated as “Pharm.D”.) is required to sit for the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination.

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    Pharmacology
  • Pharmacovigilance

    Pharmacovigilance (PV)-also known as drug safety - is a broad term that describes the collection, analysis, monitoring and prevention of adverse effects in drugs and therapies. It is a completely scientific and process-driven area within pharma. Navigator Gemonics™ operating principles include being pro-actively pharmacoviligent!

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    Pharmacovigilance
  • Phenotype

    Phenotype is a description of your actual physical characteristics. This includes straightforward visible characteristics like your height and eye color, but also your overall health, your disease history, and even your behavior and general disposition. All observable characteristics of an individual, such as body or tissue structure, behavior, or other measurable traits are considered to be a part of your Phenotype, and these result from the expression of that individual’s genes and their interaction with environmental and internal factors.

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    Phenotype
  • Polymorphism

    Polymorphism A variant that has two or more alleles and is present at a frequency of at least 1% of the population. Polymorphisms are useful for genetic linkage analysis such as those used in pharmacogenomics.

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    Polymorphism
  • RNA

    RNA A ribonucleic acid (RNA) version of a gene that leaves the cell nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm. During protein synthesis, the ribosome, a cytoplasmic organelle, moves along the mRNA and translates each three-base triplet into the corresponding amino acid. RNAs are normally sampled through use of blood tests.

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    RNA
  • Sensitivity

    Sensitivity The frequency with which a test yields a true positive result among individuals who actually have the disease or the gene mutation in question. A test with high sensitivity has a low false-negative rate and identifies affected individuals.

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    Sensitivity
  • Sequencing

    Sequencing The laboratory technique that determines the exact sequence of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule. DNA sequence information is used to study how variations in genotypes impact gene function. DNA sequencing has become faster and cheaper since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2000, when the first human genome was sequenced.

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    Sequencing
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)Pronounced “snip”, a single nucleotide locus with two or more naturally occurring alleles defined by a single base pair substitution.

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    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
  • Swab

    Swab An absorbent pad (similar looking as a Q-tip), is used to take a specimen of your saliva for examination.

    Please swab the inside of each cheek for 15 seconds to ensure good collection of your saliva for your OYG test.

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    Swab
  • Toxicity

    Toxicity The level of poison contained in a drug, or the ability of a drug to poison the body.

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    Toxicity
  • Variants

    Genetic Variants describes the variation in DNA in each of our genomes. Individuals have similar characteristics but they are rarely identical, the difference between them is called Variation. Genetic variation results in different forms, or Alleles, of genes. Variants directly impact the capacity utilization, speed and excretion, ond overall efficacy of medications taken by an individual.

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    Variants
  • Whole-genome Sequencing

    Whole-genome Sequencing A laboratory process that is used to determine nearly all of the approximately 3 billion nucleotides of an individual’s complete DNA sequence, including non-coding sequence.

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    Whole-genome Sequencing
 

Regulatory Organizations


  • CAP

    College of American Pathologists (CAP) The CAP Laboratory Accreditation helps laboratories meet Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulatory requirements (specific to laboratories subject to US regulations). Ensures compliance through the guidance of the most comprehensive scientifically endorsed laboratory standards. The College of American Pathologists (CAP), is a medical society serving approximately 18,000 physician members and the laboratory community throughout the world. It is headquartered in Northfield, Illinois. It is the world’s largest association composed exclusively of pathologists certified by the American Board of Pathologists.

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    CAP
  • CDC

    *Center for Disease Control (CDC)

    Learn more about CDC’s center, research, data and communication tools including cannabis.

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    CDC
  • CLIA

    Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988, established quality standards for all laboratory testing to ensure the accuracy, reliability and timeliness of patient test results regardless of where the test was performed. The FDA and CDC use and endorse CLIA guidelines for labs to be certified for testing human samples.

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    CLIA
  • DEA

    DEA (the Drug Enforcement Agency)-The mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is to enforce the controlled substances laws and regulations of the United States and bring to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States, or any other competent jurisdiction, those organizations and principal members of organizations, involved in the growing, manufacture, or distribution of controlled substances appearing in or destined for illicit traffic in the United States; and to recommend and support non-enforcement programs aimed at reducing the availability of illicit controlled substances on the domestic and international markets. Cannabis (Marjiuana) is treated as Schedule I drug by the DEA. The DEA was founded in 1971 and the DEA Agency is managed by the US Department of Justice.

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    DEA
  • FDA

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is operated by the US government to test and provide guidelines and set rigid standards for all food, pharmaceuticals, testing, labeling, etc. to protect consumers.

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    FDA
  • GINA

    Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act; the Act of Congress in the United States designed to prohibit the use of genetic information in health insurance and employment. The Act prohibits group health plans and health insurers from denying coverage to a healthy individual or charging that person higher premiums based solely on a genetic predisposition to developing a disease in the future. The legislation also bars employers from using individuals’ genetic information when making hiring, firing, job placement, or promotion decisions.

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    GINA
  • HIPAA

    HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996) is United States legislation that provides data privacy and security provisions for safeguarding medical information. OnlyYOU® Genomics uses all HIPAA guidelines, including our HIPAA Business Associates.

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    HIPAA
  • NIH

    NIH (National Institute of Health) is the primary agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The National Institute of Health is responsible for biomedical and health-related research. The NIH both conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program (IRP) and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program. The NIH provides grants for independent research, drug develpoment, academic, medical and healthcare studies.

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    NIH